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Census Records

Decennial Census | State Censuses | Mortality Schedules | Slave Schedules | Native American Censuses | Vets and Widows Censuses

Decennial Census 

The Genealogy Department has Federal Census records and indexes for most years for most Southeastern and mid-Atlanticstates. Federal Census records can also be accessed via the Ancestry Library Edition database.

Click here to view the Census indexes we have.

Click here to view Census records we have on microfilm.

State Censuses 

State censuses have been taken at one time or another by most of the 50 states. Unlike the federal censuses, which have been taken once every ten years since 1790to apportion Congressional representation, state censuses were taken randomly, their purposes varying according to the needs of the state.State censuses are a valuable genealogical resource because they help to fill in gaps between the federal decennial census.

Click here to view a list of the state censuses we have.

Mortality Schedules 

Mortality schedules, lists of persons who died in the 12 months prior to the census, were taken with the 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880 censuses. These registers predate the recording of vital statistics in most states. Although deaths are under-reported, mortality schedules remain an invaluable source of genealogical information proving useful for tracing genetic symptoms and diseases and verifying ancestry, although African Americans are often not included, especially if they were slaves.

In addition to the mortality schedules listed below, U.S. Federal Mortality Schedules can bealso be accessed via the Ancestry Library Edition database.

Microfilm
Federal Mortality Census Schedules: 1850-1880 and Related Indexes, 1850-1880.
GEN Microfilm
JPL holds microfilm for Mississippi, Pennsylvania and Tennessee.
Books
Florida Mortality Schedules.
GEN 929.3759 F636
Kentucky 1850 agricultural census for Letcher, Lewis, Lincoln, Livingston, Logan, McCracken, Madison, Marion, Marshall, Mason, Meade, Mercer, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Muhlenburg, and Nelson Counties.
GEN 929.3769 G796k
Lee County, Kentucky 1880 annotated census, including the 1880 mortality schedule.
GEN 929.3769185 H418L
Minnesota 1900 census mortality schedule.
GEN 929.3776 W289m
The 1860 federal census of Stokes County, North Carolina : also includes 1860 mortality schedule with index which includes the head-of-household and any person within that household with a different surname.
GEN 929.375664 D238e
Alabama mortality schedule, 1860 : eighth census of the United States: original returns of the assistant marshalls, third series: persons who died during the year ending June 30, 1860.
GEN 929.376 B248a
Mississippi 1870 mortality schedule.
GEN 929.3762 J13m
Mississippi 1880 mortality schedule.
GEN 929. 3762 J13m
Mississippi 1860 mortality schedule.
GEN 929.3762 J13m
Mortality schedule, Mississippi, 1850.
GEN 929.3762 J13
Mortality schedule, Georgia, 1850.
929.3758 J13m
Mortality schedule, Kentucky 1850.
GEN 929.3769 J13m
Mortality schedule, Louisiana 1850.
GEN 929.3763 J13m
Mortality schedule, Tennessee 1850.
GEN 929.3768 J13m
Tennessee mortality schedules.
GEN 929.3768 S632t

Slave Schedules 

At the 1850 and 1860 censuses, an enumeration of slaves was conducted. Full names were seldom recorded, yet each slave was numbered. Organized by owner, each person was listed with age, sex and color. With these details, along with other facts gathered outside the schedule, it is possible to locate a specific person without knowing and or finding their actual name.

Microfilm
Slave Census Schedules, 1850, 1860.
GEN Microfilm
JPL holds microfilm slave schedules from these states: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia.

Native American Censuses 

In some years, separate censuses of Native Americans were taken by the federal government and the Bureau of Indian Affairs. These census records apply only to Native Americans registered with the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Many families never enrolled with the government. There are other miscellaneous records that document Native Americans. Supplementary rolls list births, deaths, and sometimes marriages. Deduction rolls give deaths or removals from the jurisdiction. Additional rolls include arrivals and births. Allotment rolls list those entitled to payment and the payments received.

In 1983 the Dawes Commission, commonly called the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, appointed by President Grover Cleveland, negotiated with the Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw and Chickasaw Tribes to abolish tribal government and to recognize state and federal laws. The Indian Tribes received in exchange a share of common property.

Microfilm
Census of Creek Indians Taken by Parsons and Abbott in 1832.
Schedules of a Special Census of Indians, 1880: includes Tulalip, Yakama, Standing Rock and Round Valley Indian Agencies.
New York Indian Census Rolls, 1894-1897 and 1898-1901.
Enrollment Cards for the Five Civilized Tribes, 1898-1914.
Final Rolls of Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory (as Approved by the Secretary of the Interior on or Before Mar. 4, 1907, With Supplements Dated Sept. 25, 1914), 1907-1914.
Books
Choctaw and Chickasaw early census records.
GEN 929.3089973 W756c
The 1860 federal census of Stokes County, North Carolina: also includes 1860 mortality schedule with index which includes the head-of-household and any person within that household with a different surname.
GEN 929.375664 D238e
Register of Choctaw emigrants to the West, 1831 and 1832.
GEN 929.3089973 W756v
Guion Miller roll "plus" of Eastern Cherokee: east & west of Mississippi "1909".
GEN 929.3089975 B642g
Dawes roll "plus" of Cherokee nation 1898.
GEN 929.3089975 B642d
Choctaw of Mississippi Indian census, 1929-1932, with birth and death records, 1924-1932.
GEN 929.3089975 B786m
North Carolina Eastern Cherokee Indian census, 1898-1899, 1904, 1906, 1909-1912, 1914.
GEN 929.3089975 B786n
Seminole of Florida Indian census 1930-1940 with birth and death records 1930-1938.
GEN 929.3089975 B786s
Cherokee roots.
GEN 929.308997 B642c
Mississippi Choctaws Indian census with births, deaths, and marriages 1933-1939.
GEN 929.3089975 B786m
Cherokee descendants : an index to the Guion Miller applications — 3 vols.
GEN 929.3089975 B786c
Index to the Cherokee freedmen enrollment cards of the Dawes Commission, 1901-1906.
GEN 929.3089975 P132i
Index to the final rolls of citizens and freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory.
GEN 970.00497 U58f

Veterans and Widows Censuses 

Mandated by an Act of Congress March 1, 1889, this special census was intended to enumerate Union veterans and their widows to facilitate the processing of pension applications. Since many pension requests had been turned down or delayed due to lack of documentation during the 1880’s, it was thought published records might help to locate someone who could verify service.

The resulting data actually listed, however, is a compilation of service records from all conflicts to date including veterans and widows from both sides of the Civil War. Each individual record is divided into two parts, with part one the more useful and part two perhaps more interesting. Part one generally lists specifics such as name, rank, unit, date of entry and often the exact release date. While part two if completed, lists an address and most usually any injury or illness from that service.

Microfilm
Special Schedules of the Eleventh Census (1890) Enumerating Union Veterans and Widows of Union Veterans of the Civil War, complete set.
GEN Microfilm
Note before transfer to the National Archives, the schedules for Alabama and portions of Kentucky were destroyed and are therefore no longer available.